The application of the IoT to agriculture implies a change in the way of working with crops, with the aim of automating processes, optimizing resources, reducing costs and increasing profitability and production.
IoT in agriculture not only refers both to the hardware and software components associated with this technology, as well as to the implementation and development of systems that help in decision making in crops.
With these technologies the farmer is able to:
· Analyze environmental variables (soil, climate ...)
· Monitor the soil and cultivation, and collect environmental information.
· Study processes of evolution of crops.
· Create specific machine learning models.
· Implement decision support systems for process optimization.
· Measure the different social sensors for components that affect decision-making: predict demand, schedule the harvest, adapt the harvest to prices ...
The technologies that are being applied to obtain these benefits are for example:
· Drones for crop monitoring: They offer an aerial view of the terrain and collect vital information to analyze the state of the crops or perform terrain mapping.
· Sensors to analyze data: These sensors collect information and send it in a way that can be analyzed remotely and in real time.
· GPS global positioning systems: These devices make it possible to locate and locate people or objects anywhere on a farm.
· Geographic Information Systems (GIS):GIS systems are responsible for storing, analyzing or retrieving the data sent by GPS and represent the information as a set of data in real time.
· High precision machinery for fertilizer application: Also called variable rate fertilizer technology. They are controllers and equipment that allow the necessary dose of fertilizers to be applied with maximum precision, according to the data collected by the Geographic Information Systems. They also require that the location of the equipment on the plot be monitored by GPS.
· Satellite beaconing: It is a technology that allows equipment such as applicator or spray aircraft to follow a predetermined path without going out of bounds. They design the trajectory of these teams to ensure effective application.
·Smart tractors: Equipped with radars, sensors or GPS systems that allow them to detect obstacles or know at all times the path to follow.
·Chatbots for farmers: There are chatbots that allow farmers to consult any information about their farm.
All these technologies help not only to obtain a better yield from crops but are also helping to develop a sustainable production that guarantees the future of the agricultural sector.
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